Cradle to Cradle® (Chinees Edition)

從搖籃到搖籃 綠色經濟的設計提案

內容簡介

◎聯合推薦
經濟部次長/施顏祥
工業局局長/陳昭義
企業永續發展協會祕書長/黃正忠
政大NPO-EMBA召集人/黃秉德
台達電子公司、台達電子文教基金會董事長/鄭崇華

好的設計就像大自然,沒有浪費這回事!
想像一下,河流想要怎樣的肥皂?櫻桃樹又會怎樣設計一棟房子?

在大自然裡,沒有需要丟棄的東西——當一棵櫻桃樹開滿花朵、而這些花朵又紛紛落地時,沒有人會覺得資源被浪費了——因為所有枯枝、落葉、落花,都將回到土壤,再度成為養分,培育出新的花朵和果實。

如果人類社會是由櫻桃樹所繁衍的,世界將會是怎樣的情景?那樣一來,我們所思考的,將不再是如何減少對環境的污染、如何減少資源的浪費、如何減少廢棄物的排放......;而是回到源頭去想,如何從一開始,就像棵櫻桃樹一樣,縱然繁花落盡,卻依然生生不息。

只要所有事物的設計,都依循「從搖籃到搖籃」概念,而不是一生產出來,就走向墳墓!
第一次工業革命時,大自然的資源一經開採,就注定了一條直線的「從搖籃到墳墓」之路:加工、製造、使用、拋棄、污染。而如今,搖籃到搖籃的設計(C2C design)觀點,為我們帶來第二次工業革命!無論是產品的材質、設計乃至都市規劃,在設計之初,就先考慮如何像大自然一樣,不斷循環利用,依然不減其價值(甚至還能增值利用),從搖籃持續走向搖籃。

想像一下,以C2C概念設計出來的各項物品:
用壞了的地毯,可以丟棄在花園裡,提供土壤所需的養分;用肥皂洗滌過的廢水,可以成為河流的養分;買一台車,可以在五年後款式過氣時丟棄,也毫不可惜,因為所有材料都能回收,另創價值;而紙張,將不再只是回收一次兩次,而是重複使用一百次、兩百次......。

從搖籃到搖籃的新典範,不僅對生態友善,對經濟成長同樣抱持正面思維:東西得以不斷推陳出新、將舊有的完全回收來製造新一代的產品。在我們將打造東西的方法重新打造時,創意、美學和精湛的工業技術,都受到了鼓勵,充滿嶄新的刺激與挑戰。

這場革命不是理想家的空談,目前已開發出600多種C2C產品:福特將推出由大豆和玉米所建造的汽車;Nike設計出了可回收的球鞋;全球最符合人體工學的辦公椅製造商Herman Miller製造了幾乎可以百分百再利用的椅子;波特蘭gDiapers公司生產出不含毒素的棉質尿布,內層可在100 天內由土壤分解;中國大陸開始進行永續發展的造城試驗、荷蘭更進入「C2C狂熱」中,著手打造全球第一個徹底實踐從搖籃到搖籃的國度。

這將是一次全球國家競爭力和工業技術力的轉移,藉由大自然的循環概念,使地球資源和人類的經濟社會,處處有生機,共同晃動生態和產業的搖籃。

One of the wonders of human nature is our ability to hope. Even in the midst of tragedy we dream and think ahead and persevere. The great biologist Edward O. Wilson calls us "the future-seeking species" and suggests that natural selection has made hopefulness a unique human quality, "a necessary companion of intelligence."

Still more human, perhaps, is our capacity for acting on our hopes. We not only dream, we strive to achieve the dreams we imagine. Behind all human achievement, from the creative acts of artists to the building of communities, from the making and trading of goods to the work of nations, there is aspiration, resolve, and action.

We wrote Cradle to Cradle in this spirit of hope and resolve. By celebrating a commercially productive, socially beneficial, and ecologically intelligent approach to the making of things, we wanted to suggest the possibility of a positive, inspiring future for human endeavor.

Our vision owes much to Chinese culture. The idea that humanity can have a mutually beneficial relationship with the biological world is the foundation of the 4000 year-old tradition of Chinese agriculture. Without a fundamental understanding of the regenerative, cradle-to-cradle nutrient flows that enrich the soil and bring new growth, without a keen appreciation for the many ways in which human participation in the landscape can support life, Chinese civilization would not have survived. And yet it has thrived. How inspiring to see that cradle-to-cradle thinking can become not only the common knowledge of a people, but the rich soil of a lively culture and a venerable philosophical tradition.

Yet even deeply rooted cultural traditions can be lost. In China, as well as in the West, the advent of industrialism created a kind of cultural amnesia in which a linear, cradle-to-grave paradigm replaced the cyclical patterns of perpetual agriculture. In the United States it took merely a century to turn the rich, fertile soil of the Great Plains into the ravaged landscape of the Dust Bowl. In China, the accumulated knowledge of 40 centuries of farming began to slip away in the course of two generations. Industry, meanwhile, never seriously considered how it might benefit from cradle-to-cradle thinking, and could not have foreseen all the ways in which its cradle-to-grave model would change the world. And so today, while human endeavors generate great wealth and technological wonders, we also see that there are places in the depths of the Pacific Ocean where particles of plastic outnumber zooplankton six-to-one.

But what if even polymers could be designed as "nutrients"? That's the vision of Cradle to Cradle. Its strategy is simple. By modeling the technical world of industry on the cradle-to-cradle traditions of agriculture, all the materials we use can provide "nutrition" for nature and industry. This is the foundation of a truly cradle-to-cradle world: A world of interdependent natural and human systems, powered by renewable energy, in which everything we make flows in safe, healthful biological and technical cycles, elegantly and equitably deployed for the benefit of all.

Industry employs and profits from the cradle-to-cradle strategy by designing materials as nutrients that can circulate in one or the other of these regenerative, closed-loop cycles. In the biological cycle organic materials designed for composting, such as biodegradable packaging, are returned to the soil after use. In the technical cycle, safe, high-tech, synthetic materials-technical nutrients-are produced, used, recovered and remanufactured in a perpetual flow of valuable assets. These nutrient flows, we hope, will become the foundation of 21st century industry.

The cornerstone has already been set. In the United States and Europe, companies such as Ford Motor Company, BASF, Nike, Shaw Industries and many others have adopted the cradle-to-cradle strategy. Shaw, for example, the largest producer of commercial carpet in the world, has begun to apply cradle-to-cradle thinking to its product development process. After a scientific assessment of the material chemistry of its carpet fiber and backing to ensure that every material is safe, Shaw designed a perpetually recyclable, completely healthful technical nutrient carpet tile that virtually eliminates the concept of waste. Ford, meanwhile, has launched the cradle-to-cradle renovation of its famous Rouge River industrial site with a new manufacturing facility, a factory with a living roof and a landscape of wetlands and swales that naturally purifies storm water run-off. Ford also introduced in 2003, the Model U, a concept car designed to explore the use of safe, beneficial cradle-to-cradle materials in the transportation industry.

These emerging strategies of change, rather than seeking to simply maintain or reduce the negative impacts of industry, aim to create industrial systems and products that have positive, regenerative impacts on the natural world. And not coincidentally, enterprises such as these are also responsive to economic and social concerns. Indeed, we don't have to settle for imagining a factory where respected workers produce safe, profitable products in a clean, sunlit plant that enriches the local economy while purifying water-it already exists.

Why not many such places? Why not a new era of positive problem solving that celebrates the human impact on the natural world? We would measure success not by how much eroded soil has been treated but how much healthy soil has been created; not how many dams have been built to reduce flooding but how much water has followed its natural flow cycle safely and prouctively; not how much hazardous waste in landfills has been reduced but how many products have been produced safely without ever having to put anything into a landfill.

These are the kinds of solutions that could transform the relationship between China and the United States. Currently, the two nations suffer from the commercial exchange of toxic products that damage the economic, social and environmental health of both nations. While China becomes the world's low-cost producer of toxic products, the U.S. brings those products to market with the world's most "efficient" distribution system, moving goods in a rapid, one-way trip from retailer to consumer to landfill. In many cases, the U.S. sends the most toxic products back to China, where lead and copper are unsafely recycled from computers and televisions. This is trade as mutually assured destruction.

It is profoundly important to reform this relationship. The two powers represent critical dimensions of the human enterprise that clearly have a determining influence on the future of the planet. The combined influence of their industrial practices alone calls forth both great responsibilities and great opportunities. To that end, we are working towards the day when China and the United States become cradle-to-cradle industrial partners, generating products and enterprises that support the life and health of each nation. This cooperative relationship, at its best, will also be a competitive one. Rather than competing to destroy each other, however, we could compete in the classic sense of the word, which in Latin means "to strive together." Imagine, then, working vigorously toward a common goal: Not an end game in which one player wins, but a field of endeavor in which China and the U.S. get fit together as each nation strives to create enterprises that generate commercial productivity, ecological intelligence and cultural wealth.

That will only be a beginning. The birth of truly regenerative industry and commerce asks for global action. It requires the energy, genius, and commitment of all sectors of society from all nations. It asks that communities, governments, NGOs, educators, and business leaders from Boston to Beijing apply cradle-to-cradle design and development to the pursuit of a prosperous, equitable future for all. We must reach, all of us, for nothing less.

There is much to do and much to learn. And there is reason to hope. Businesses worldwide are taking up the cradle-to-cradle strategy. The emerging relationship between China and the United States itself offers bright prospects. China alone, in fact, stands as a testament to the possibilities of renewal. And so it is with great humility that we offer this book through the China-U.S. Center for Sustainable Development to the Chinese people. In ways large or small, we hope that it will contribute to a magnificent re-evolution of human enterprise, a moment in our shared history when the things we make and build and grow truly are a regenerative force.

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